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Needham’s Question and China’s Evolution

Joseph Needham’s question Why did capitalism emerge in the West and not in China is discussed along with the sources to form a centralized state and the mechanism for perpetuating the Chinese bureaucracy. The relationship between the stability and complexity of socio -ecological systems is also analyzed. The potential application of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and nonlinear dynamics to social evolution in China is introduced. A brief survey of historical and contemporary issues relating to the transition of agricultural structure in China and the recent crisis in economic and political reform is given.

Needham’s Question and China’s Evolution.pdf

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